The complete text of the original John's gospel

The complete text of the original John's gospel

Front page: Jesus, a historical reconstruction (with website search function)
You may email the author, and learn more about him here
Note: all emphases are mine.

Notes:
a) For a good understanding, this page should be read after:
Firstly, as the introductory page:
'John's gospel, from original to canonical'
Secondly, as arranged in blocks, for an overview of the successive changes:
'The gospels according to "John"'
b) From this page, one may access the latter additions, including the short insertions, verse(s) or part of verse.
c) Legend:
- <Refer to text of additions>
- [Comments]
- "M": before Luke's gospel was known
- "L": after Luke's gospel was known and before 'Acts' appeared
- "A": after 'Acts' was known and before the "beloved disciple" died
- "D": after the "beloved disciple" died
- M9 in navy: text added for Version Mx
- LN in blue or Lvn: text added for Version L
- Lvn in red: words added because of Version L relocations
- text in green: passages relocated for Version Lx
- AN in fuchsia or Avn: text added for Version A
- DN in purple: text added for Version D
- (...)+: major insertion(s) added later (see "blocks" for identification)
- {...}: suspected later addition; also, may be a note set in the margin and relocated in the body of the text later on.

For the original version without in-situ comments and suspected interpolated clauses ({...}), read this webpage

M1:
The Beginning, Jesus with John the Baptist and the wedding at Cana (1:1-2:12)

1:1 (NKJV) In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
1:2 He was in the beginning with God.
1:3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.
[Similarities with the writings of Philo of Alexandria (Jewish theologian/philosopher, died 45-50C.E.), '1Corinthians', 'Hebrews' and '1John':
Philo's The special Laws I, ch. XVI "Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made"
1Co8:6 YLT "... Jesus Christ, through whom [are] the all things, and we through Him ..."
Heb1:2 NKJV "... His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;"
(see also Jn1:10 "... the world was made through Him ...")
1Jn1:1-2a NKJV "That which was from the beginning, ... concerning the Word of life -- the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness ..."]
1:4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.
1:5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
1:6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.
1:7 This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through him might believe.
1:8 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.
1:9 That was the true Light which gives light to every man coming into the world.
1:10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him.
1:11 He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him.
1:12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name:
1:13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
[Similarities with '1John':
Legend: '1John'=GJohn
1:1=1:1,14 1:4=16:24 1:6-7=3:19-21 2:7=13:34-35 3:8=8:44 3:14=5:24 4:6=8:47 4:9=1:14,18,3:16 5:9=5:32,37 5:12=3:36]
1:15 John bore witness of Him and cried out, saying, "This was He of whom I said, 'He who comes after me is preferred before me, for He was before me.'"
1:16 And of His fullness we have all received, and grace for grace.
1:17 For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
1:18 No one has seen God at any time.
[Not according to the scriptures:
God is seen by a few in the O.T., as for example:
Ge32:30 "So Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: "For I have seen God [whom Jacob wrestled earlier] face to face, and my life is preserved.""]
` The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him.
1:19 Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?"
1:20 He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ."
1:21 And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No."
[John and Elijah:
In Mk9:11-13, John the Baptist (JohnB) is suggested to be Elijah by Jesus. "John", who lowered JohnB to almost nothing (just a witness of Jesus' divinity), must have decided the Baptist, as the new Elijah, was too much to accept]
1:22 Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?"
1:23 He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Make straight the way of the LORD,"' as the prophet Isaiah said."
1:24 Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees.
1:25 And they asked him, saying, "Why then do you baptize if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?"
1:26 John answered them, saying, "I baptize with water, but there stands One among you whom you do not know.
1:27 It is He who, coming after me, is preferred before me, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose.
[With water, the One coming after and sandals:
Similar wording as in the Synoptics. But "John", "Matthew"& "Luke" removed "stoop down" from GMark; also GMatthew has "bear'" instead of "loose"]
1:28 These things were done in Bethabara beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.
1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
1:30 "This is He of whom I said, 'After me comes a Man who is preferred before me, for He was before me.'
1:31 "I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water."
1:32 And John bore witness, saying, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him.
["like a dove":
In Mk1:10, the narrator, and NOT JohnB himself, gave an account of "the Spirit" ("like a dove") descending on Jesus. Typical embellishment by "John". More to come ... Also let's notice GMatthew has "the Spirit of God" (3:16) and GLuke "the Holy Spirit" (3:22) as the descending dove; but GJohn uses "the Spirit" as in GMark]
1:33 "I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.'
1:34 "And I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God."
[JohnB knows about Jesus:
In GMark, JohnB never knows about Jesus, only that a more powerful One will come. This is one example among many where "John" appears to embellish/correct GMark, as the other synoptic authors will do]
1:35 Again, the next day, John stood with two of his disciples.
1:36 And looking at Jesus as He walked, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God!"
37 The two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.
1:38 Then Jesus turned, and seeing them following, said to them, "What do you seek?" They said to Him, "Rabbi", "where are You staying?"
1:39 He said to them, "Come and see." They came and saw where He was staying, and remained with Him that day (now it was about the tenth hour).
1:40 One of the two who heard John speak, and followed Him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.
1:41 He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which is translated, the Christ).
1:42 And he brought him to Jesus. Now when Jesus looked at him, He said, "You are Simon the son of Jonah. You shall be called Cephas" (which is translated, a Stone).
1:43 The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him, "Follow Me."
1:44 {Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter}.
["Bethsaida":
In GMark, Peter & Andrew have their home in Capernaum (1:29), and not Bethsaida, 3.5 miles NE. Bethsaida became a city (Julias) around 30C.E. Before (and during Jesus' public life 27-28), it was only an unwalled town, just like Capernaum. Maybe for "John" (or an interpolator) a city was more appropriate than a village as the place of origin of Jesus' disciples.
Peter is implied to be a fisherman only in the "epilogue". Also here, the two other fishermen, the sons of Zebedee, are mentioned for the first time]
1:45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and also the prophets, wrote; Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."
["Joseph":
This mention of "Joseph" might be the first one in the N.T. and independent of GLuke & GMatthew. GMark and "Q" have NO "Joseph" (as Jesus' father). Also here (& in the whole of GJohn), "Nazareth" is written as in GMark (1:19 'nazaret'). However it is always spelled differently in GLuke ('nazara' & 'nazareq').
GMatthew shows the three aforementioned forms, 'Acts' only 'nazareq']
1:46 And Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him, "Come and see."
1:47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him, and said of him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit!"
1:48 Nathanael said to Him, "How do You know me?" Jesus answered and said to him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you."
1:49 Nathanael answered and said to Him, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God!" <L1:49p>
1:50 Jesus answered and said to him, "Because I said to you, 'I saw you under the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these."
1:51 And He said to him, "Most assuredly, I say to you, hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man."

2:1 On the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there.
2:2 Now both Jesus and His disciples were invited to the wedding.
2:3 And when they ran out of wine, the mother of Jesus said to Him, "They have no wine."
2:4 Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does your concern have to do with Me? My hour has not yet come."
2:5 His mother said to the servants, "Whatever He says to you, do it."
2:6 Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of purification of the Jews, containing twenty or thirty gallons apiece.
[Dionysus?
According to Pausanias (115-180), the priests of Dionysus, at the temple of Elis, placed three empty large cauldrons in a sealed room and found them filled with wine on the next day. Jesus would outperform Dionysus' priests on two fronts: number (six to three) and time (immediately to one day)!]
2:7 Jesus said to them, "Fill the waterpots with water." And they filled them up to the brim.
2:8 And He said to them, "Draw some out now, and take it to the master of the feast." And they took it.
2:9 When the master of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and did not know where it came from {(but the servants who had drawn the water knew)}, the master of the feast called the bridegroom.
2:10 And he said to him, "Every man at the beginning sets out the good wine, and when the guests have well drunk, then the inferior. You have kept the good wine until now!"
2:11 This beginning of signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested His glory; and His disciples believed in Him.
["Cana":
The sign in Cana appears only in GJohn. How did "John" know about it (and also about the healing from Cana of a boy in Capernaum: 4:43-53)?
Readers/listeners must have been wondering. Later, that was solved in the "epilogue": Nathanael is from Cana!]
2:12 After this He went down to Capernaum, He <L2:12p> and His disciples; and they did not stay there many days.
<L 2:13>


<L1 3:22-4:54>

M2:
Jesus in Galilee, the miraculous feeding, walking on water and the discourse at Capernaum and Jesus goes to the Feast of Tabernacles (6:1-7:10)

6:1 (NASB) After these things Jesus went away to the other side of the Sea of Galilee (or Tiberias).
[Capernaum:
Jesus and disciples start from Capernaum (on the lake and travel by boat, according to Jn6:16-17)]
6:2 (NKJV) Then a great multitude followed Him. <L6:2p>
6:3 And Jesus went up on the mountain, and there He sat with His disciples.
6:4 Now the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was near.
[Time before Passover:
The narrative seems to indicate the gospel author (and the Christians in his community) knew Jesus met JohnB only a few weeks before Passover:
Jn1:29a The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God ...""
Jn1:35 "Again, the next day ..."
Jn1:43 "The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, [three to four days' walk] ..."
Jn2:1 "On the third day there was a wedding [duration one day?] in Cana [Galilee] ..."
Jn2:12 "After this [the wedding] he went down to Capernaum, [one day walk] ... [he] did not stay there many days"
Jn2:13a "Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, ..."] 6:5 Then Jesus lifted up His eyes, and seeing a great multitude coming toward Him, He said to Philip, "Where shall we buy bread, that these may eat?"
6:6 But this He said to test him, for He Himself knew what He would do.
6:7 Philip answered Him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may have a little."

[Testing the disciple:
Here, Jesus is testing the disciples (by asking a dumb question!). In GMark, there is no testing mentioned when Jesus asks the disciples:
Mk6:37 "... "You give them something to eat." ..."
"John" added the "testing" likely not to have Jesus seem foolish and ignorant of the cost of food (as he looks in GMark).
"two hundred denarii":
These words do not appear in GLuke or GMatthew, only in GMark (6:37)]
6:8 One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to Him,
6:9 "There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two small fish, but what are they among so many?"
6:10 Then Jesus said, "Make the people sit down." Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.
["Much grass":
"green grass" appears in GMark (6:39) but there is no mention of "grass" in GLuke (9:11-17). In GMatthew, we have only "on the grass" (14:19).
Probably, the "green grass" gave a justification for "John" to relocate the miraculous feeding in early spring: later, the grass would dry up in the arid Mediterranean summer]
6:11 (RSV) Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated; so also the fish, as much as they wanted.
["Distributed":
In GLuke (9:16) and GMark (6:41,8:7), the food is not "distributed" to the people, just "set before" the crowd by the disciples. "John" also had Jesus himself delivering the food to all, considerably embellishing above GMark, as "Matthew" did also, differently: "He ... gave the loaves to the disciples; and the disciples gave to the multitudes."(14:19)]
6:12 (NKJV) So when they were filled, He said to His disciples, "Gather up the fragments that remain, so that nothing is lost."
6:13 Therefore they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves which were left over by those who had eaten.
[Improvement over GMark:
It looks "John" removed all the flaws of GMark account of the feeding of the 5000:
a) The 'dumb question' is a test.
b) The food is distributed to the people "as much as they wanted", not only presented.
c) The number of people is within the narration, not at the end, as an addendum.
d) The crowd realizes Jesus has done a miraculous sign.
The later point brings a problem: how to explain Jesus had few followers in Galilee, after a whole crowd acknowledged an extraordinary miracle?
The solution is the "cannibalistic" discourse in Capernaum which follows, causing the multitude, who wanted him to be their king, to abandon him]
6:14 Then those men, when they had seen the sign that Jesus did, said, "This is truly the Prophet who is to come into the world."
6:15 Therefore when Jesus perceived that they were about to come and take Him by force to make Him king, He departed again to the mountain by Himself alone.

[Jesus and the crowd:
Rather unrealistic: with the crowd acknowledging the miraculous feeding, Jesus is allowed to retire alone! In GMark, Jesus does that too, but the crowd is NOT mentioned to have noticed anything extraordinary (Mk6:46). Therefore, the last clause of Jn6:15 appears to be "borrowed" from GMark]
6:16 Now when evening came, His disciples went down to the sea,
6:17 got into the boat, and went over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was already dark, and Jesus had not come to them.
6:18 Then the sea arose because a great wind was blowing.
6:19 So when they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and drawing near the boat; and they were afraid.
6:20 But He said to them, "It is I; do not be afraid."
[Copied from GMark:
The underlying Greek words are the same as in Mk6:50 (but different in Mt14:27)]
6:21 Then they willingly received Him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land where they were going.
[Walking on water:
This story does NOT exist in GLuke. And again, most of the flaws of GMark account have been eliminated and some embellishment added: "immediately"]
6:22 On the following day, when the people who were standing on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there, except that one which His disciples had entered, and that Jesus had not entered the boat with His disciples, but His disciples had gone away alone;
6:23 however, other boats came from Tiberias, near the place where they ate bread after the Lord had given thanks;
6:24 when the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, nor His disciples, they also got into boats and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus.
6:25 And when they found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him, "Rabbi, when did You come here?"
6:26 Jesus answered them and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, you seek Me, not because you saw the signs, but because you ate of the loaves and were filled.
6:27 "Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to everlasting life, which the Son of Man will give you, because God the Father has set His seal on Him."
6:28 Then they said to Him, "What shall we do, that we may work the works of God?"
6:29 Jesus answered and said to them, "This is the work of God, that you believe in Him whom He sent."
6:30 Therefore they said to Him, "What sign will You perform then, that we may see it and believe You? What work will You do?
6:31 "Our fathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written, 'He gave them bread from heaven to eat.'"
6:32 Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
6:33 "For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."
6:34 Then they said to Him, "Lord, give us this bread always."
6:35 And Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst.
6:36 "But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe.
6:37 "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.
6:38 "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.
<A6:39>
6:40 "And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life <A6:40p>."
6:41 The Jews then complained about Him, because He said, "I am the bread which came down from heaven."
6:42 And they said, "Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, 'I have come down from heaven'?"
6:43 Jesus therefore answered and said to them, "Do not murmur among yourselves.
6:44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him <A6:44p>.
6:45 "It is written in the prophets, 'And they shall all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to Me.
6:46 "Not that anyone has seen the Father, except He who is from God; He has seen the Father.
6:47 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life.
6:48 "I am the bread of life.
6:49 " Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
6:50 "This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die.
["Live forever":
For any Christian practicing the Eucharist, dying is not a possibility! See also confirmation in next verse, 3:15,16 and, more so, 6:58]
6:51 "I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world."
[Passover time:
Here is a reason to locate this discourse during the Passover time slot, when lambs were sacrificed in the temple of Jerusalem, to be eaten later. Jesus is declared "the Lamb of God" earlier (1:29,36) by JohnB]
6:52 The Jews therefore quarreled among themselves, saying, "How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?"
6:53 Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you.
6:54 "Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life <A6:54p>.
6:55 "For My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed.
6:56 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him.
[Eucharist:
By far, this is the strongest expression of the Eucharist in the N.T. But it is not part of the "Last Supper"!]
6:57 "As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who feeds on Me will live because of Me.
6:58 "This is the bread which came down from heaven; not as your fathers ate the manna, and are dead. He who eats this bread will live forever."
<L6:59>
6:60 Therefore many of His disciples, when they heard this, said, "This is a hard saying; who can understand it?"
6:61 When Jesus knew in Himself that His disciples complained about this, He said to them, "Does this offend you?
<A6:62>
6:63 "It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and they are life.
6:64 "But there are some of you who do not believe." {For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who would betray Him.}
[Judas:
From that point, there will be references to a particular disciple, the betrayer (as in 6:70,13:21), but no naming of Judas. The evil disciple's name is revealed later in Jn13:18-27, with suspense and theatrics. Consequently, name-dropping of this Judas (Jn6:71,12:4,6,13:2) are likely later insertions]
6:65 And He said, "Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father."
6:66 From that time many of His disciples went back and walked with Him no more.
6:67 Then Jesus said to the twelve, "Do you also want to go away?"
["The twelve":
First mention of them. Three verses later, we learn the twelve have been chosen earlier, as described in the synoptic gospels (Mk3:13-19, Mt10:2-4, Lk6:14-16) but never narrated in GJohn (nor any list given)]
6:68 But Simon Peter answered Him, "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life.
6:69 NASB ""We have believed and have come to know that You are the Holy One of God."
6:70 NKJV Jesus answered them, " Did I not choose you , the twelve, and one of you is a devil?"
<L6:71>
7:1 After these things Jesus walked in Galilee
<L7:1p>.
7:2 Now the Jews' Feast of Tabernacles was at hand.
["Feast of Tabernacles":
In October. So the walking in Galilee was for the whole good season, accounting for the activities of Jesus as in GMark (before going to Judea and across the Jordan: Mk10:1)]
7:3 His brothers therefore said to Him, "Depart from here and go into Judea, <L7:3p>
7:4 "For no one does anything in secret while he himself seeks to be known openly. If You do these things, show Yourself to the world."
[Jesus in Judea:
According to the two preceding verses, Jesus is still unknown in Judea. Also here, Galilee is considered very remote, as some "secret land", while Judea is in "the world"]
7:5 For even His brothers did not believe in Him.
[Jesus' brothers:
a) Those brothers are not believers in Jesus; therefore they must be his true blood brothers and not followers.
b) "John" and his community likely knew Jesus' siblings were not among his disciples]
7:6 Then Jesus said to them, "My time has not yet come, but your time is always ready.
7:7 "The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it that its works are evil.
7:8 "You go up to this feast. I am not yet going up to this feast, for My time has not yet fully come."
7:9 When He had said these things to them, He remained in Galilee.
7:10 But when His brothers had gone up, then He also went up to the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.

[To Jerusalem in secret:
From this time, none of the twelve Galilean disciples are identified to be with Jesus, at least not until they reappear some six months later during Jesus' last days in Jerusalem. Because Mark's gospel pertains to be written from a Galilean perspective (more so Peter's), it seems "John" felt he had to explain why nothing about that visit is reported in GMark: the Galileans were not with Jesus when he went "not openly" to Jerusalem then!]


M3:
Jesus heals a sick at a pool in Jerusalem (5:2-47)+

<L5:1>
5:2 Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate a pool, which is called in Hebrew, Bethesda, having five porches.
["Bethesda":
The pool is 200 yards NE of the temple precinct and, at the time of Jesus, likely outside the city walls: a good place to have a bath for any traveler coming from the north (as Galilee), before entering the city & temple.
Because of the present tense in "is", some commentators claim the gospel was written before 70C.E. But the pool, dug very deep under ground level, is remarkably well preserved & therefore was not obliterated by the Romans, and could have still existed after 68-70 for some time. Or maybe the author did not used "was" in order to avoid alluding to Jerusalem destruction. Please note the (conflicting) past tense later in the gospel, in Jn11:18 "Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, about two miles away.", Jn18:1 "... He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden ..." and Jn19:41 "Now in the place where He was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb ..."
In the next verse "lay" is in the imperfect tense, therefore more correctly translated as "kept lying" or "used to lay", certainly not indicating the pool was still in use at the time of the gospel writing!]
5:3 In these lay a great multitude of sick people, blind, lame, paralyzed, waiting for the moving of the water.
[Latter additions:
5:3b and 5:4 (in gray) show only in a few ancient manuscripts and is likely a very late insertion]
5:4 For an angel went down at a certain time into the pool and stirred up the water; then whoever stepped in first, after the stirring of the water, was made well of whatever disease he had.
5:5 Now a certain man was there who had an infirmity thirty-eight years.
5:6 When Jesus saw him lying there, and knew that he already had been in that condition a long time, He said to him, "Do you want to be made well?"
5:7 The sick man answered Him, "Sir, I have no man to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up; but while I am coming, another steps down before me."
5:8 Jesus said to him, "Rise, take up your bed and walk."
[Similarity with Mk2:9:
Mk2:9 "'Arise, take up your bed and walk'?"
But in GMark, this happens for a paralytic, in Galilee, and not Jerusalem!]
5:9 And immediately the man was made well, took up his bed, and walked. And that day was the Sabbath.
5:10 The Jews therefore said to him who was cured, "It is the Sabbath; it is not lawful for you to carry your bed."
5:11 He answered them, "He who made me well said to me, 'Take up your bed and walk.'"
5:12 Then they asked him, "Who is the Man who said to you, 'Take up your bed and walk'?"
5:13 But the one who was healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn, a multitude being in that place.
5:14 Afterward Jesus found him in the temple, and said to him, "See, you have been made well. Sin no more, lest a worse thing come upon you."
5:15 The man departed and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had made him well.
5:16 For this reason the Jews persecuted Jesus, <L5:16p> because He had done these things on the Sabbath.
5:17 But Jesus answered them, "My Father has been working until now, and I have been working.
<L5:18-19p>
5:19 ... Most assuredly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He sees the Father do; for whatever He does, the Son also does in like manner.
5:20 "For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself does; and He will show Him greater works than these, that you may marvel.
5:21 "For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will.

<A5:22>
5:23 "that all should honor the Son just as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.
5:24 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who hears My word and believes in Him who sent Me has everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life.

<A1 5:25-30>
5:31 "If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is not true.
5:32 "There is another who bears witness of Me, and I know that the witness which He witnesses of Me is true.
5:33 "You have sent to John, and he has borne witness to the truth.
5:34 "Yet I do not receive testimony from man, but I say these things that you may be saved.
5:35 " He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing for a time to rejoice in his light.
[JohnB's demise:
According to "John", JohnB is no more, likely executed by then. His arrest and execution would have taken place between March/April (Passover) and October (Tabernacles)]
5:36 "But I have a greater witness than John's; for the works which the Father has given Me to finish; the very works that I do; bear witness of Me, that the Father has sent Me.
5:37 "And the Father Himself, who sent Me, has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His form.
5:38 "But you do not have His word abiding in you, because whom He sent, Him you do not believe.
5:39 "You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me.
5:40 "But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life.
5:41 "I do not receive honor from men.
5:42 "But I know you, that you do not have the love of God in you.
5:43 "I have come in My Father's name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive.
5:44 "How can you believe, who receive honor from one another, and do not seek the honor that comes from the only God?
5:45 "Do not think that I shall accuse you to the Father; there is one who accuses you; Moses, in whom you trust.
5:46 "For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me.
5:47 "But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?"


M4:
Jesus preaches in the temple for two months and heals a blind man, then goes beyond the Jordan (7:11-10:42)

7:11 Then the Jews sought Him at the feast, and said, "Where is He?"
7:12 And there was much complaining among the people concerning Him. Some said, "He is good"; others said, "No, on the contrary, He deceives the people."
7:13 However, no one spoke openly of Him for fear of the Jews.
7:14 Now about the middle of the feast Jesus went up into the temple and taught.
[Jesus goes public:
The controversy about the curing of a sick man during Sabbath explains why Jesus waited before teaching in the temple (according to "John")]
7:15 And the Jews marveled, saying, "How does this Man know letters, having never studied?"
7:16 Jesus answered them and said, "My doctrine is not Mine, but His who sent Me.
7:17 "If anyone wants to do His will, he shall know concerning the doctrine, whether it is from God or whether I speak on My own authority.
7:18 "He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory; but He who seeks the glory of the One who sent Him is true, and no unrighteousness is in Him.
7:19 "Did not Moses give you the law, yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill Me?"
7:20 The people answered and said, "You have a demon. Who is seeking to kill You?"
7:21 Jesus answered and said to them, "I did one work, and you all marvel.
7:22 "Moses therefore gave you circumcision (not that it is from Moses, but from the fathers), and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath.
7:23 "If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath, so that the law of Moses should not be broken, are you angry with Me because I made a man completely well on the Sabbath?
7:24 "Do not judge according to appearance, but judge with righteous judgment."
7:25 Now some of them from Jerusalem said, <L7:25p>
7:26 "look! He speaks boldly, and they say nothing to Him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is truly the Christ?
7:27 "However, we know where this Man is from; but when the Christ comes, no one knows where He is from."
7:28 Then Jesus cried out, as He taught in the temple, saying, "You both know Me, and you know where I am from; and I have not come of Myself, but He who sent Me is true, whom you do not know.
7:29 "But I know Him, for I am from Him, and He sent Me."
7:30 Therefore they sought to take Him; but no one laid a hand on Him, because His hour had not yet come.
7:31 And many of the people believed in Him, and said, "When the Christ comes, will He do more signs than these which this Man has done?"
7:32 The Pharisees heard the crowd murmuring these things concerning Him, and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take Him.
7:33 Then Jesus said to them, "I shall be with you a little while longer, and then I go to Him who sent Me.
7:34 "You will seek Me and not find Me, and where I am you cannot come."
7:35 Then the Jews said among themselves, "Where does He intend to go that we shall not find Him? Does He intend to go to the Dispersion among the Greeks and teach the Greeks?
7:36 "What is this thing that He said, 'You will seek Me and not find Me, and where I am you cannot come'?"
7:37 On the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, "If anyone thirsts, let him come to Me and drink.
7:38 "He who believes in Me, as the Scripture has said, out of his heart will flow rivers of living water."
<L7:39>
7:40 Therefore many from the crowd, when they heard this saying, said, "Truly this is the Prophet."
7:41 Others said, "This is the Christ." But some said, "Will the Christ come out of Galilee?
7:42 "Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the seed of David and from the town of Bethlehem, where David was?"
7:43 So there was a division among the people because of Him.
[Jesus and Bethlehem:
In GMark (12:35-37), Jesus/Christ/Lord is NOT a descendant of David. But later in GLuke (and GMatthew), he becomes one and also born in Bethlehem. Here, GJohn does not take position, but acknowledges a division on the issue. That may be indicative of an intermediary stage into the development (or rather acceptance) of the tradition among Gentile Christians]
7:44 Now some of them wanted to take Him, but no one laid hands on Him.
7:45 Then the officers came to the chief priests and Pharisees, who said to them, "Why have you not brought Him?"
7:46 The officers answered, "No man ever spoke like this Man!"
7:47 Then the Pharisees answered them, "Are you also deceived?
7:48 "Have any of the rulers or the Pharisees believed in Him?
7:49 "But this crowd that does not know the law is accursed."
7:50 Nicodemus ( <L7:50p> being one of them) said to them,
7:51 "Does our law judge a man before it hears him and knows what he is doing?"
7:52 They answered and said to him, "Are you also from Galilee? Search and look, for no prophet has arisen out of Galilee."
[Addition:
Jn7:53-8:11 appears only in a few ancient copies. The story is sometimes in some early manuscripts of GLuke. According to Eusebius, 'The History of the Church', 3, 39, the story of the sinful woman seems to have been originally part of the uncanonical gospel of the Hebrews (a few fragments are preserved)]

8:12 Then Jesus spoke to them again, saying, "I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life."
8:13 The Pharisees therefore said to Him, "You bear witness of Yourself; Your witness is not true."
8:14 Jesus answered and said to them, "Even if I bear witness of Myself, My witness is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going; but you do not know where I come from and where I am going.
8:15 "You judge according to the flesh; I judge no one.
8:16 And yet if I do judge, My judgment is true; for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent Me.
[Jesus as a judge:
The words in italics are likely an interpolation/"correction", considering what immediately precedes; Jesus will become the Judge in Version A, after 'Acts' got known]
8:17 "It is also written in your law that the testimony of two men is true.
8:18 "I am One who bears witness of Myself, and the Father who sent Me bears witness of Me."
8:19 Then they said to Him, "Where is Your Father?" Jesus answered, "You know neither Me nor My Father. If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also."
8:20 These words Jesus spoke in the treasury, as He taught in the temple; and no one laid hands on Him, for His hour had not yet come.
8:21 Then Jesus said to them again, "I am going away, and you will seek Me, and will die in your sin. Where I go you cannot come."
8:22 So the Jews said, "Will He kill Himself, because He says, 'Where I go you cannot come'?"
8:23 And He said to them, "You are from beneath; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world.
8:24 "Therefore I said to you that you will die in your sins; for if you do not believe that I am He, you will die in your sins."
8:25 Then they said to Him, "Who are You?" And Jesus said to them, "Just what I have been saying to you from the beginning.
8:26 "I have many things to say and to judge concerning you, but He who sent Me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I heard from Him."
8:27 They did not understand that He spoke to them of the Father.
8:28 Then Jesus said to them, "When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and that I do nothing of Myself; but as My Father taught Me, I speak these things.
8:29 "And He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please Him."
8:30 As He spoke these words, many believed in Him.
8:31 Then Jesus said to those Jews who believed Him, "If you abide in My word, you are My disciples indeed.
8:32 "And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free."
8:33 They answered Him, "We are Abraham's descendants, and have never been in bondage to anyone. How can you say, 'You will be made free'?"
8:34 Jesus answered them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin.
8:35 "And a slave does not abide in the house forever, but a son abides forever.
8:36 "Therefore if the Son makes you free, you shall be free indeed.
8:37 "I know that you are Abraham's descendants, but you seek to kill Me, because My word has no place in you.
8:38 "I speak what I have seen with My Father, and you do what you have seen with your father."
8:39 They answered and said to Him, "Abraham is our father." Jesus said to them, "If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham.
8:40 "But now you seek to kill Me, a Man who has told you the truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not do this.
8:41 "You do the deeds of your father." Then they said to Him, "We were not born of fornication; we have one Father; God."
8:42 Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and came from God; nor have I come of Myself, but He sent Me.
8:43 "Why do you not understand My speech? Because you are not able to listen to My word.
8:44 "You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it.
8:45 "But because I tell the truth, you do not believe Me.
8:46 "Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not believe Me?
8:47 "He who is of God hears God's words; therefore you do not hear, because you are not of God."
8:48 Then the Jews answered and said to Him, "Do we not say rightly that You are a Samaritan and have a demon?"
8:49 Jesus answered, "I do not have a demon; but I honor My Father, and you dishonor Me.
8:50 "And I do not seek My own glory; there is One who seeks and judges.
8:51 "Most assuredly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he shall never see death."
8:52 Then the Jews said to Him, "Now we know that You have a demon! Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and You say, 'If anyone keeps My word he shall never taste death.'
8:53 "Are You greater than our father Abraham, who is dead? And the prophets are dead. Whom do You make Yourself out to be?"
8:54 Jesus answered, "If I honor Myself, My honor is nothing. It is My Father who honors Me, of whom you say that He is your God.
8:55 "Yet you have not known Him, but I know Him. And if I say, 'I do not know Him,' I shall be a liar like you; but I do know Him and keep His word.

<L2 8:56-58>
8:59 Then they took up stones to throw at Him; but Jesus hid Himself and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.

9:1 Now as Jesus passed by, He saw a man who was blind from birth.
9:2 And His disciples asked Him, saying, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?"
9:3 Jesus answered, "Neither this man nor his parents sinned, but that the works of God should be revealed in him.
9:4 "I must work the works of Him who sent Me while it is day; the night is coming when no one can work.
9:5 "As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world."
9:6 When He had said these things, He spat on the ground and made clay with the saliva; and He anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay.
[Spitting:
Mk8:23 "So He took the blind man by the hand and led him out of the town. And when He had spit on his eyes ..."
One can wonder: why would the extraordinary Son of God of GJohn use petty healer's procedure, if it were not inspired from GMark (also 7:33)?
GMatthew features 'blind healed' by (only) "touched their eyes" (9:29,20:34).
In GLuke, the only narration of 'blind cured' is in 18:35, without spitting or physical contact]
9:7 And He said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which is translated, Sent). So he went and washed, and came back seeing.
9:8 Therefore the neighbors and those who previously had seen that he was blind said, "Is not this he who sat and begged?"
9:9 Some said, "This is he." Others said, "He is like him." He said, "I am he."
9:10 Therefore they said to him, "How were your eyes opened?"
9:11 He answered and said, "A Man called Jesus made clay and anointed my eyes and said to me, 'Go to the pool of Siloam and wash.' So I went and washed, and I received sight."
9:12 Then they said to him, "Where is He?" He said, "I do not know."
9:13 They brought him who formerly was blind to the Pharisees.
9:14 Now it was a Sabbath when Jesus made the clay and opened his eyes.
9:15 Then the Pharisees also asked him again how he had received his sight. He said to them, "He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and I see."
9:16 Therefore some of the Pharisees said, "This Man is not from God, because He does not keep the Sabbath." Others said, "How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?" And there was a division among them.
9:17 They said to the blind man again, "What do you say about Him because He opened your eyes?" He said, "He is a prophet."
9:18 But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind and received his sight, until they called the parents of him who had received his sight.
9:19 And they asked them, saying, "Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?"
9:20 His parents answered them and said, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind;
9:21 "but by what means he now sees we do not know, or who opened his eyes we do not know. He is of age; ask him. He will speak for himself."
<L9:22-23>
9:24 So they again called the man who was blind, and said to him, "Give God the glory! We know that this Man is a sinner."
9:25 He answered and said, "Whether He is a sinner or not I do not know. One thing I know: that though I was blind, now I see."
9:26 Then they said to him again, "What did He do to you? How did He open your eyes?"
9:27 He answered them, "I told you already, and you did not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you also want to become His disciples?"
9:28 Then they reviled him and said, "You are His disciple, but we are Moses' disciples.
9:29 "We know that God spoke to Moses; as for this fellow, we do not know where He is from."
9:30 The man answered and said to them, "Why, this is a marvelous thing, that you do not know where He is from; yet He has opened my eyes!
9:31 "Now we know that God does not hear sinners; but if anyone is a worshiper of God and does His will, He hears him.
9:32 "Since the world began it has been unheard of that anyone opened the eyes of one who was born blind.
9:33 "If this Man were not from God, He could do nothing."
9:34 They answered and said to him, "You were completely born in sins, and are you teaching us?" And they cast him out.
9:35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when He had found him, He said to him, "Do you believe in the Son of God?"
9:36 He answered and said, "Who is He, Lord, that I may believe in Him?"
9:37 And Jesus said to him, "You have both seen Him and it is He who is talking with you."
9:38 Then he said, "Lord, I believe!" And he worshiped Him.
9:39 And Jesus said, "For judgment I have come into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may be made blind."
9:40 Then some of the Pharisees who were with Him heard these words, and said to Him, "Are we blind also?"
9:41 Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, 'We see.' Therefore your sin remains.

10:1 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who does not enter the sheepfold by the door, but climbs up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
10:2 "But he who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.
10:3 "To him the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice; and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out.
10:4 "And when he brings out his own sheep, he goes before them; and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice.
10:5 "Yet they will by no means follow a stranger, but will flee from him, for they do not know the voice of strangers."
10:6 Jesus used this illustration, but they did not understand the things which He spoke to them.
["Illustration":
That's as close to a parable as we get. The illustration, as the parables in the synoptic gospels, is not understood but this allegory is explained next]
10:7 Then Jesus said to them again, "Most assuredly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.
10:8 "All who ever came before Me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them.
10:9 "I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture.
10:10 "The thief does not come except to steal, and to kill, and to destroy. I have come that they may have life, and that they may have it more abundantly.
10:11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep.
10:12 "But a hireling, he who is not the shepherd, one who does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees; and the wolf catches the sheep and scatters them.
10:13 "The hireling flees because he is a hireling and does not care about the sheep.
10:14 "I am the good shepherd; and I know My sheep, and am known by My own.
10:15 "As the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.
10:16 "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.
10:17 "Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again.
10:18 "No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father."
10:19 Therefore there was a division again among the Jews because of these sayings.
10:20 And many of them said, "He has a demon and is mad. Why do you listen to Him?"
10:21 Others said, "These are not the words of one who has a demon. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?"

10:22 Now it was the Feast of Dedication in Jerusalem, and it was winter.
["Feast of Dedication":
In December. By then, Jesus would have stayed two full months in Jerusalem]
10:23 And Jesus walked in the temple, in Solomon's porch.
10:24 Then the Jews surrounded Him and said to Him, "How long do You keep us in doubt? If You are the Christ, tell us plainly."
10:25 Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in My Father's name, they bear witness of Me.
10:26 "But you do not believe, because you are not of My sheep, as I said to you.
10:27 "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.
10:28 "And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand.
10:29 "My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father's hand.
10:30 "I and My Father are one."
10:31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone Him.
10:32 Jesus answered them, "Many good works I have shown you from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?"
10:33 The Jews answered Him, saying, "For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself God."
10:34 Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, "You are gods"'?
10:35 "If He called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken),
10:36 "do you say of Him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'You are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'?
10:37 "If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me;
10:38 "but if I do, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in Him."
10:39 Therefore they sought again to seize Him, but He escaped out of their hand.

10:40 And He went away again beyond the Jordan to the place where John was baptizing at first, and there He stayed.
[Wintering:
From December to March/April: the lower Jordan valley is rather mild and pleasant in winter!]
10:41 Then many came to Him and said, "John performed no sign, but all the things that John spoke about this Man were true."
10:42 And many believed in Him there.

<L3 11:1-57>


M5:
Jesus enters Jerusalem for Passover (12:1-16)+

12:1 Then, six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany.
["Bethany" and GMark:
In GMark, Jesus (coming from Jericho) gets a "triumphal welcome" from Bethany to Jerusalem, then has a quick look at the temple, then goes back to Bethany for the night; and he returns to the temple the next morning (Mk11:1-15).
"John" seems to follow the same plan. However, because Bethany is not on the road to Jericho, it appears "John" skipped the early brief visit to the temple and had the "triumphal entry" from Bethany on the next day.
Note: according to Jn11:18, the author knew the location of Bethany]
<L4 12:1p-11>
12:12 The next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
12:13 took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out: "Hosanna! 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!"
<L12:13p>
[GMark & GLuke:
Mk11:9b "Hosanna! 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!'"
GLuke has NO "Hosanna"]
12:14 Then Jesus, when He had found a young donkey, sat on it; as it is written:
12:15 "Fear not, daughter of Zion; Behold, your King is coming, Sitting on a donkey's colt."
[Colt and donkey:
GMatthew has Jesus ridding two animals at once!
Mt21:7 "They brought the donkey and the colt, laid their clothes on them, and set Him on them."]
12:16 {His disciples did not understand these things at first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written about Him and that they had done these things to Him.}
<L5 12:17-21>


M6:
Jesus cleanses the Temple and talks with Nicodemus (2:14-3:21)

2:14 And He found in the temple those who sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the moneychangers doing business.
2:15 When He had made a whip of cords, He drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and the oxen, and poured out the changers' money and overturned the tables.
2:16 And He said to those who sold doves, "Take these things away! Do not make My Father's house a house of merchandise!"
2:17 Then His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for Your house has eaten Me up."
2:18 So the Jews answered and said to Him, "What sign do You show to us, since You do these things?"
2:19 Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up."
<L2:20-21>
[Mention of Jerusalem destruction?
Possibly. But, more certainly, verse 2:19 echoes a passage from GMark:
Mk14:57-58 "Some stood up and began to give false testimony against Him, saying, We heard Him say, 'I will destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.'"
GLuke does not have this passage.
The author was definitively working from Mk14:57-58. And because "this temple" will be raised up in three days after its destruction, it may be suggested the temple here is Jesus' himself]
<L2:22>
2:23 Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name when they saw the signs which He did.
2:24 {But Jesus did not commit Himself to them, because He knew all men,
2:25 and had no need that anyone should testify of man, for He knew what was in man.}

3:1 There was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.
3:2 This man came to Jesus by night and said to Him, "Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with him."
3:3 Jesus answered and said to him, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God."
3:4 Nicodemus said to Him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?"
3:5 Jesus answered, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.
["Kingdom of God":
These are the only two occurrences of "Kingdom of God" in the whole gospel; and here is the only allusion this Kingdom can be entered]
3:6 "That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
3:7 "Do not marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born again.'
3:8 "The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear the sound of it, but cannot tell where it comes from and where it goes. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit."
3:9 Nicodemus answered and said to Him, "How can these things be?"
3:10 Jesus answered and said to him, "Are you the teacher of Israel, and do not know these things?
3:11 "Most assuredly, I say to you, We speak what We know and testify what We have seen, and you do not receive Our witness.
3:12 "If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things?
3:13 "No one has ascended to heaven but He who came down from heaven, that is, the Son of Man who is in heaven.
[What about Elijah?
2Ki2:11 "... suddenly a chariot of fire appeared with horses of fire, and separated the two of them; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."
The author of the gospel did not know about this celebrated prophet's ascension to heaven! Why? Because this writer was not a Jew and consequently was not familiar with all the scriptures. More about the author(s) at the end of this page]
3:14 "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
3:15 "that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life.
3:16 "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.
3:17 "For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.
3:18 "He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
3:19 "And this is the condemnation, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.
3:20 "For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed.
3:21 "But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be clearly seen, that they have been done in God."


M7:
Jesus teaches in Jerusalem and the Last Supper (part 1) (12:20-14:31)+

12:20 Now there were certain Greeks among those who came up to worship at the feast.
12:21 Then they came to Philip, {who was from Bethsaida of Galilee}, and asked him, saying, "Sir, we wish to see Jesus."
12:22 Philip came and told Andrew, and in turn Andrew and Philip told Jesus.
12:23 But Jesus answered them, saying, "The hour has come that the Son of Man should be glorified.
12:24 "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it produces much grain.
[Grain and seed:
The imagery has some similarities with the one of the growing seed parable (Mk4:26-29)]
<A12:25-26>
12:27 "Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say? 'Father, save Me from this hour'? But for this purpose I came to this hour.
12:28 "Father, glorify Your name." Then a voice came from heaven, saying, "I have both glorified it and will glorify it again."
12:29 Therefore the people who stood by and heard it said that it had thundered. Others said, "An angel has spoken to Him."
12:30 Jesus answered and said, "This voice did not come because of Me, but for your sake.
12:31 "Now is the judgment of this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out.
12:32 "And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all peoples to Myself."
12:33 This He said, signifying by what death He would die.
12:34 The people answered Him, "We have heard from the law that the Christ remains forever; and how can You say, 'The Son of Man must be lifted up'? Who is this Son of Man?"
12:35 Then Jesus said to them, "A little while longer the light is with you. Walk while you have the light, lest darkness overtake you; he who walks in darkness does not know where he is going.
12:36 "While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light." These things Jesus spoke, and departed, and was hidden from them.
12:37 But although He had done so many signs before them, they did not believe in Him,
12:38 that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke: "Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?"
12:39 Therefore they could not believe, because Isaiah said again:
12:40 "He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, Lest they should see with their eyes, Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, So that I should heal them."
[GMark and "hardened":
"hardened their hearts" does not appear in Isaiah6:9-10 (the origin of the above quote). The LXX reads: "this people's heart has become calloused". But "hardened" (Greek root 'poroo') is used in Mk6:52 ("their hearts were hardened") and Mk8:17 ("are your hearts hardened?"). Among all the synoptic gospels, any derivations of 'poroo' exist only here. In the N.T., the word also appears in Ro11:7 & 2Co3:14, but is not associated with "heart". Another good evidence in favour of "John" knowing GMark]
12:41 These things Isaiah said when he saw His glory and spoke of Him.
<L12:42-43>
12:44 Then Jesus cried out and said, "He who believes in Me, believes not in Me but in Him who sent Me.
12:45 "And he who sees Me sees Him who sent Me.
12:46 "I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in Me should not abide in darkness.
12:47 "And if anyone hears My words and does not believe, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world.
12:48 "He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has that which judges him; the word that I have spoken will judge him in the last day.
12:49 "For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak.
12:50 "And I know that His command is everlasting life. Therefore, whatever I speak, just as the Father has told Me, so I speak."

13:1 Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.
13:2 (NASB) During supper, <L13:2p>
13:3 (NKJV) Jesus <L13:3p>
13:4 rose <L13:4p> and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself.
13:5 After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded.
13:6 Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, "Lord, are You washing my feet?"
[Washing the feet:
NOT mentioned in the other gospels]
13:7 Jesus answered and said to him, "What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will know after this."
13:8 Peter said to Him, "You shall never wash my feet!" Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me."
13:9 Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!"
13:10 Jesus said to him, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you."
13:11 For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, "You are not all clean."
13:12 So when He had washed their feet, taken His garments, and sat down again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you?
13:13 "You call me Teacher and Lord, and you say well, for so I am.
13:14 "If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet.
13:15 "For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.
13:16 "Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him.
13:17 "If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them.
13:18 "I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.'
13:19 "Now I tell you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe that I am He.
13:20 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who receives whomever I send receives Me; and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me."
13:21 When Jesus had said these things, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me."
13:22 Then the disciples looked at one another, perplexed about whom He spoke.
13:23 Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved.
13:24 Simon Peter therefore motioned to him to ask who it was of whom He spoke.
13:25 Then, leaning back on Jesus' breast, he said to Him, "Lord, who is it?"
13:26 Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it." And having dipped the bread,
[dipping of bread:
In GMark 14:18-21, but not in GLuke or GMatthew]
` He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.
[The betrayer revealed:
The betrayer is revealed here. In the original GJohn, Judas is the main cause of Jesus' demise]
13:27 {Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him.}
[GJohn and Satan:
This is the only occurrence of Satan in GJohn (compared with Mk=5, Mt=3, Lk=5), and the passage is likely inspired (& therefore interpolated later) from Lk22:3 "Then Satan entered Judas ..." (before the meal!).
Also, because Judas receives the piece of bread later at Jn13:30, "after the piece of bread" is a bit premature!]
` Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly."
13:28 But no one at the table knew for what reason He said this to him.
13:29 For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus had said to him, "Buy those things we need for the feast," or that he should give something to the poor.
13:30 Having received the piece of bread, he then went out immediately. And it was night.
13:31 So, when he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now the Son of Man is glorified, and God is glorified in Him.
13:32 "If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and glorify Him immediately.
13:33 "Little children, I shall be with you a little while longer. You will seek Me; and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you cannot come,' so now I say to you.
13:34 "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another.
[A not so new commandment:
1Jn3:23 And this is His commandment: [of God, not Jesus]
that we should believe on the name of His Son Jesus Christ and love one another, as He gave us commandment."

And from Paul's earliest letter:
1Th4:9 "But concerning brotherly love you have no need that I should write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God to love one another;"]
13:35 "By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another."
13:36 Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, where are You going?" Jesus answered him, "Where I am going you cannot follow Me now, but you shall follow Me afterward."
13:37 Peter said to Him, "Lord, why can I not follow You now? I will lay down my life for Your sake."
13:38 Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life for My sake? Most assuredly, I say to you, the rooster shall not crow till you have denied Me three times.

14:1 "Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me.
14:2 "In My Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
14:3 "And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also.
[The mini second coming and clue about the dating:
It is not specified if this second coming will also affect the Christians, but it is the only expression (in the original GJohn) of a future event which would allow entering the Kingdom (set in heaven). The expected eschatology here is very minimal, but Jn12:48 does mention a "last day" of judgment to come.
That also suggests the disciples are still believed to be alive when this passage was written. This is corroborated by '1John' (written earlier--see later on this page) claiming there were alleged eyewitnesses then (1:1-3). Certainly GMark (13:14,21,23) gives the impression the disciples outlasted the events of 70C.E, but the widely known '1Clement' (written 80-81--my dating) indicated Peter had died. Therefore a 75-80 dating for the original gospel is very plausible.
Furthermore, this observation fits well with 'the believers (as the disciples) do not die' concept of the original gospel]
14:4 "And where I go you know, and the way you know."
14:5 Thomas said to Him, "Lord, we do not know where You are going, and how can we know the way?"
[Thomas and the gospel of Thomas:
GTh logion 24 "His disciples said to Him, "Show us the place where You are, since it is necessary for us to seek it." He said to them, "Whoever has ears, let him hear. There is light within a man of light, and he (or "it") lights up the whole world. If he (or "it") does not shine, he (or "it") is darkness."
Did "John" try to redirect some "Thomassan" sectarians who were preoccupied about having a "road map" to heaven? Of course "John" proposed the clear Johannine solution, while, according to GThomas, Jesus' location after his "departure" is very problematic, as also in:
GTh logion 30/77 (Greek) "... Raise the stone, and there you will find me; cleave the wood, and there I am."
]
14:6 Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.
14:7 "If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from now on you know Him and have seen Him."
14:8 Philip said to Him, "Lord, show us the Father, and it is sufficient for us."
14:9 Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, 'Show us the Father'?
14:10 "Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority; but the Father who dwells in Me does the works.
14:11 "Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in Me, or else believe Me for the sake of the works themselves.
14:12 "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do he will do also; and greater works than these he will do, because I go to My Father.
14:13 "And whatever you ask in My name, that I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
14:14 "If you ask anything in My name, I will do it.
14:15 "If you love Me, keep My commandments.
14:16 "And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever;
14:17 "the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.
14:18 "I will not leave you orphans;

[The Helper is to come:
This suggests a long-lasting action (and not a short reappearance), as indicated next, that is the permanent giving of the Helper, allowing the disciples to remember Jesus' words, therefore keeping him with his disciples (sort of) after he is gone]
` I will come to you.
14:19 "A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also.
14:20 "At that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.
14:21 "He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him."
14:22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to Him, "Lord, how is it that You will manifest Yourself to us, and not to the world?"
14:23 Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.
14:24 "He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father's who sent Me.
14:25 "These things I have spoken to you while being present with you.
14:26 "But the Helper, <L14:26p> whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you.
14:27 "Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
14:28 "You have heard Me say to you, 'I am going away and coming back to you.' If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, 'I am going to the Father,' for My Father is greater than I.
14:29 "And now I have told you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe.
14:30 "I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming, and he has nothing in Me.
14:31 "But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go from here."

<M9 15:1-17:26>


M8:
Jesus' arrest, trial, crucifixion and empty tomb (18:1-20:10)+

18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered.
18:2 And Judas, who betrayed Him, also knew the place; for Jesus often met there with His disciples.
18:3 Then Judas, having received a detachment of troops and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, "Whom are you seeking?"
18:5 They answered Him, "Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus said to them, "I am He." And Judas, who betrayed Him, also stood with them.
18:6 Now when He said to them, "I am He," they drew back and fell to the ground.
18:7 Then He asked them again, "Whom are you seeking?" And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth."
18:8 Jesus answered, "I have told you that I am He. Therefore, if you seek Me, let these go their way,"
18:9 that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, "Of those whom You gave Me I have lost none."
18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.
18:11 So Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword into the sheath. Shall I not drink the cup which My Father has given Me?"
18:12 Then the detachment of troops and the captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound Him.
[More improvements from GMark:
The trial by Pilate has been much improved from GMark version. Also true for the arrest: the one with the sword is named in GJohn and he is Peter. His victim is also given a name. Also let's notice a suggestion the Romans seem involved in the arrest, contrary of what shows in the Synoptics]
18:13 And they led Him away to <L18:13p> Caiaphas who was high priest that year.
<L18:14>
18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest.
18:16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought Peter in.
18:17 Then the servant girl who kept the door said to Peter, "You are not also one of this Man's disciples, are you?" He said, "I am not."
18:18 Now the servants and officers who had made a fire of coals stood there, for it was cold, and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them and warmed himself.
18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine.
18:20 Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet, and in secret I have said nothing.
18:21 "Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said."
18:22 And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, "Do You answer the high priest like that?"
18:23 Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?"
<L18:24>
18:25 Now Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. Therefore they said to him, "You are not also one of His disciples, are you?" He denied it and said, "I am not!"
18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of him whose ear Peter cut off, said, "Did I not see you in the garden with Him?"
18:27 Peter then denied again; and immediately a rooster crowed
18:28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.
[The day before Passover:
Here is a major conflict with GMark (and the other synoptic gospels): Jesus is condemned and crucified one day before Passover, when lambs were sacrificed in the temple (and JohnB declared Jesus is "the Lamb of God" 1:29,36!).
However, that may not be the main reason for the switch: "John", working from GMark, was probably trying to explain why the trial was not done with the implicated ones inside a tribunal hall, as normally done then (in a dignified way!). Solution: the Jews cannot go inside the Praetorium, a Gentile building, because the ensuing defilement would prevent them to eat the Passover meal (Jn18:28)! As a consequence, the Passover is pushed back to fall on Mark's Sabbath day and Pilate is seen shuttling between inside the Praetorium to a place where he could confer with the chief priests outside!
In Mark's gospel, because of 15:16, the trial is not inside the Praetorium. And with a whole crowd present (15:8), it seems to be improvised outside.]
18:29 Pilate then went out to them and said, "What accusation do you bring against this Man?"
18:30 They answered and said to him, "If He were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you."
18:31 Then Pilate said to them, "You take Him and judge Him according to your law." Therefore the Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,"
18:32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die.
18:33 Then Pilate entered the Praetorium again, called Jesus, and said to Him, "Are You the King of the Jews?"
["Praetorium":
This word is used in GMark (& GMatthew) but NOT in GLuke]
18:34 Jesus answered him, "Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?"
18:35 Pilate answered, "Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?"
18:36 Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here."
18:37 Pilate therefore said to Him, "Are You a king then?" Jesus answered, "You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice."
18:38 Pilate said to Him, "What is truth?" And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, <L18:38p>
18:39 "You have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?"
18:40 Then they all cried again, saying, "Not this Man, but Barabbas!" Now Barabbas was a robber.

19:1 So then Pilate took Jesus and scourged Him.
[Scourging:
Jesus is scourged (flogged) in GMark (and GMatthew) but NOT in GLuke]
19:2 And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe.
[crown of thorns:
Not mentioned in GLuke
The color of the robe:
In GMark, the robe is purple (15:17); in GLuke, NO color is specified (23:11); in GMatthew, the same robe is scarlet (27:28). Another point about "John" knowing GMark]
19:3 Then they said, "Hail, King of the Jews!" And they struck Him with their hands.
19:4 Pilate then went out again , and said to them, "Behold, I am bringing Him out to you." <L19:4p>
19:5 Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. And Pilate said to them, "Behold the Man!"
19:6 Therefore, when the chief priests and officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, "Crucify Him, crucify Him! <L19:6p>
19:7 We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God."
19:8 Therefore, when Pilate heard that saying, he was the more afraid,
19:9 and went again into the Praetorium, and said to Jesus, "Where are You from?" But Jesus gave him no answer.
19:10 Then Pilate said to Him, "Are You not speaking to me? Do You not know that I have power to crucify You, and power to release You?"
19:11 Jesus answered, "You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above. Therefore the one who delivered Me to you has the greater sin."
19:12 From then on Pilate sought to release Him, but the Jews cried out, saying, "If you let this Man go, you are not Caesar's friend. Whoever makes himself a king speaks against Caesar."
19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus out and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
[A dignified judgment:
"John" tried to enhance and dignify the proceedings of the trial, improving on what shows in GMark. Also absent in John's account is the word 'crowd' (or 'multitude'), which appears in Mk15:8,15]
19:14 Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, "Behold your King!"
19:15 But they cried out, "Away with Him, away with Him! Crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar!"
19:16 Then he delivered Him to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus and led Him away.
19:17 And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha,
["Place of Skull" and "Golgotha":
Both expressions are not mentioned in GLuke]
19:18 where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the center.
19:19 (NASB) Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It was written, "JESUS THE NAZARENE, THE KING OF THE JEWS.''
19:20 Therefore many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city <L19:20p>
19:21 (NKJV) Therefore the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'He said, "I am the King of the Jews."'"
["King of the Jews":
"John" did not want to acknowledge Jesus was considered the would-be King by some Jews then. "Mark" showed also much reluctance in that regard]
19:22 Pilate answered, "What I have written, I have written."
19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also the tunic. Now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top in one piece.
[Heavenly-made tunic:
Another mini-sign: in the first century, a seamless tunic is very unlikely to be man-made!]
19:24 They said therefore among themselves, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be," that the Scripture might be fulfilled which says: "They divided My garments among them, And for My clothing they cast lots." Therefore the soldiers did these things.
<L7 19:25-27>
19:28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, "I thirst!"
19:29 Now a vessel full of sour wine was sitting there; and they filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on hyssop, and put it to His mouth.
19:30 So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, "It is finished!" And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit.
["the sour wine":
In GMark, Jesus dies right after being offered the sour wine (15:36-37). This is not the case in GLuke (23:36-46)]
19:31 Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
19:32 Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the other who was crucified with Him.
19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs.
19:34 But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
19:35 And he who has seen has testified , and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you may believe.
[The witness:
"he who has seen has testified" is, according to the next two verses, an alleged eyewitness of part of the crucifixion (bones not broken & piercing), not of all the events of Jesus' public life]
19:36 For these things were done that the Scripture should be fulfilled, "Not one of His bones shall be broken."
19:37 And again another Scripture says, "They shall look on Him whom they pierced."

19:38 After this, Joseph of Arimathea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly, for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus; and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took the body of Jesus.
19:39 And Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds.
19:40 Then they took the body of Jesus, and bound it in strips of linen with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.
[A Jewish burial:
It appears only in GJohn, and is probably an attempt to dignify Jesus' burial, which is expeditious in GMark]
19:41 Now in the place where He was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid.
19:42 So there they laid Jesus, because of the Jews' Preparation Day, for the tomb was nearby.

20:1 Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene went to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb.
[How did this Mary know about the location of the tomb?
There is no indication in GJohn, but GMark explains that (Mk15:47)!]
20:2 Then she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and said to them, "They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid Him."
[Mary Magdalene and "we":
In GMark (16:1-8), three women, including Mary Magdalene (MaryM), are "on their way to the tomb", then "they entered the tomb" (no mention MaryM is with the two other ones at that particular time), then find it empty. After the explanation of the young man/angel:
"Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid." (Mk16:8)
How to get around that, in a community who knew about GMark?
Very simply, MaryM does not go inside the tomb (but the other two, good enough for "they", did!), consequently is not scared into silence and can tell the disciples! Let's also notice that without entering the tomb, and in the dark, MaryM "knows" it is empty, just because of the stone (or maybe from GMark?)! And the "we" seems to be a reminder of the threesome in GMark]
20:3 Peter therefore went out, and the other disciple, and were going to the tomb.
20:4 So they both ran together, and the other disciple outran Peter and came to the tomb first.
20:5 And he, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen cloths lying there; yet he did not go in.
20:6 Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; and he saw the linen cloths lying there,
20:7 and the handkerchief that had been around His head, not lying with the linen cloths, but folded together in a place by itself.
20:8 Then the other disciple, who came to the tomb first, went in also; and he saw and believed.

[About authorship:
What is transpired about the never named "beloved disciple":
- According to Jn13:23-25, he is seated next to Jesus at the "Last Supper", as the host would be.
- According to Jn19:26-27 written later, he has a home nearby, likely in Jerusalem.
- According to Jn21:20-24 written still later, he was expected to remain alive up to Jesus' second coming.
- According to Jn20:2-8, the companion of Peter, ("the other disciple"), the one who believed (in the resurrection), outruns Peter but allows him in the tomb first, as a Jewish priest would (not to risk defilement from a corpse).
- According to Jn18:15-16, an unidentified disciple and companion of Peter is "who was known by the high priest".
Note: outside of the "epilogue", all the mentions of (or allusions to) the "beloved disciple" occur in Jerusalem.
What can be concluded from that?
The "beloved disciple" is unlike John the fisherman, a lower class uneducated Galilean (Mk1:9, Ac4:13).

In his 'History of the Church', Eusebius (early 4th bishop of Cesarea, Palestine) quoted Papias (the future bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor), who was probably a young man at the end of the first century:
HC, 3, 39: "And whenever anyone came who had been [let's notice the past tense] a follower [contemporary of Papias] of the presbyters [those allegedly had listened to the twelve, but likely deceased then], I inquired into the words of the presbyters, what Andrew and Peter had said, or Philip, or Thomas or James or John [the fisherman and member of the twelve] or Matthew, or any other disciples of the Lord, and what Aristion and the presbyter John [this John was still alive then], disciples of the Lord, were still saying."
John the fisherman (and others like Peter), whose alleged words are reported (allegedly) third hand some two generations after, was dead long ago (relative to the end of the 1st century).
Polycrates, a late 2nd century Christian, wrote, as quoted by Eusebius:
HC, 3, 31 "... John, who leant back on the Lord's breast,
[as for the "beloved disciple" in Jn13:23-25]
` and who became a priest wearing the mitre, a martyr and a teacher; he too sleeps in Ephesus."
Irenaeus, also a late 2nd century Christian, related in "Against Heresies, book II" that John "who had leant back on His breast" lived "til Trajan's times" (98-117 C.E.).

Consequently, there are many reasons to think John the fisherman is NOT the "beloved disciple":
- He was likely dead before the gospel was completed.
- At the time of the crucifixion, his home was in Galilee and not Jerusalem.
- His existence is implied only in the "epilogue", as part of "the sons of Zebedee". The "beloved disciple" is also appearing here, likely as one of the "two others":
Jn21:2 "Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of His disciples were together."
- Presbyter John, an alleged disciple and an ex-priest, still alive during Papias' early years ("what Aristion and the presbyter John, disciples of the Lord, were still saying"), is a more likely candidate.

Notes:
a) In GJohn, there are thirty-two occurrences of "Peter", twelve of "Philip", eight of "Thomas", six of "Nathanael" (not one of the twelve), four of "Andrew" (Peter's brother), four of "Judas Iscariot", one of another "Judas", none of "John", none of "James" (John's brother).
b) In 'Revelation', the author revealed his name "John" five times (and NOT as 'disciple' or 'apostle'), but that's never done in GJohn and the Johannine epistles.
c) Presbyter John is the probable author of (most of) 'Revelation' (completed around 95C.E.), as an educated ex-Jewish priest with knowledge of ancient scriptures and still alive during "the great tribulation" (Rev7:14) of emperor Domitian (93-96C.E.).

Many parts of Jesus' discourses in the gospel have close similarities (themes, phraseology, style) with '1John', suggesting the epistle and (most of) the gospel (or at least the original one) were written by a same author. But then, it is very clear, in contrast of John of Revelation (very much into physical hellenized Judaism), the (anonymous) author of '1John' appears to be a local Greek speaking and strictly Gentile Christian:
'1John' is "spiritual" (as is dubbed the gospel), in excellent Greek and has NO quotes from the Scriptures & NO Judaism (except one short reference to Cain, 3:12). Of course, there are some differences between '1John' and GJohn:
- The vocabulary is more limited in '1John' than in GJohn, but the repetitions of the epistle are also occurring in the gospel. And the later, covering a lot more ground, mixing narratives & discourses, commanded a larger vocabulary. Furthermore, the increased vocabulary can be explained by the author having time to mature between the writings of '1John' (first) and the gospel.
- '1John' has references to some apocalyptic/Parousia times to come soon ("this is the last hour" (2:18), also 2:28, 3:2-3, 4:17), which is more than the gospel has to offer. However, that can be easily explained if '1John' was written significantly earlier than GJohn: the author decided not to mention any imminent Parousia (because the "last hour" went by!).
More about relative dating ...
- '1John' claims there were alleged eyewitnesses then (1:1-3). However, the gospel relies on the alleged testimony of mainly one ("the beloved disciple"), thought to be the last disciple alive (according to the "epilogue"). That would set GJohn (as a whole) as written later than the epistle.
- Very noticeable is the total lack of specifics from the gospel, inconceivable if '1John' was written after GJohn and by the same author.
- Also, the author of '1John' suggested death is not expected for the believers:
1Jn2:17 NASB "The world is passing away, and also its lusts; but the one who does the will of God lives forever."
1Jn2:25 "And this is the promise that He [God] has promised us; eternal life."
1Jn5:11-12a "And this is the testimony: God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He who has the Son has life; ..."
The original gospel claimed the same too (and more unambiguously):
Jn8:51 "Most assuredly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he shall never see death."
Jn3:15 "... whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life."
Jn3:16 "... His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life."
Jn10:27-28 "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish;"
Jn6:47-51a "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes *in Me has everlasting life. I am the bread of life.Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and are dead. This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever ..."
but that got changed in the latter versions (the believer may die!):
Jn17:2 "as You have given Him authority over all flesh, that He *should give eternal life to as many as You have given Him."
Jn11:25-26 " Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live. And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?""
Jn5:28b-29 "... all who are in the graves will hear His voice [of the Son] and come forth; those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, ..."
Jn6:40 "... everyone who looks at the Son and believes in him shall have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day."
Jn6:54 "Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last"
That certainly would position chronologically '1John' NOT after the completion of GJohn!
Let's also note the progression: in '1John', God gives eternal life; in GJohn, the Son becomes the one providing the same (most obvious in Jn17:2 & Jn10:27-28, previously quoted).
- As discussed earlier, a new commandment from Jesus ("love one another") in Jn13:34 is said to be from God in 1Jn3:23 (as in 1Th4:9 "taught by God"). That would indicate a progression from '1John' to GJohn.
- The same progression can also be seen from "For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments" (1Jn5:3) to "If you love me, keep my commandments" (Jn14:15), from God to Christ, from the author to the mouth of Jesus.
- In '1John' God is still very much prevalent, with the Son seen as peripheral, although believing in him is absolutely mandatory. That will change with the gospel, where Jesus becomes "the light of the world" (Jn8:12) whereas "God is light" (1Jn1:5) in the epistle.

The argument for a late dating of '1John' comes mainly from a few words in 1Jn4:2:
RSV "By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God,"
It is undeniable the emphasized words are against 2nd century Gnostics/Docetists. However, looking at the next verse (4:3) with its negative version of most of the preceding one, and the italized words (compare them with the ones in 4:2), it appears "that ... Christ has come in the flesh" is likely a later interpolation.
4:3a RSV "and every spirit which does not confess Jesus is not of God. This is the spirit of antichrist ..."
Of course, Jesus is also Christ & Son, because earlier, he has already been adamantly declared as such:
1Jn2:22 "Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son."(see also 1Jn4:15&5:1,5)
Therefore, not confessing Jesus is also denying Jesus as Christ & Son.

Note: Ebionites, who lived among the later 1st cent. Christians, did just that (regarding Jesus of Nazareth as NOT Christ & Son), according to Eusebius:
'History of the Church', 3, 27 "They [the Ebionites] regarded Him [Jesus] as plain and ordinary, a man esteemed as righteous through growth of character and nothing more, the child of a normal union between a man and Mary ..."

In conclusion, because many (aforementioned) pieces of internal evidence point to an early dating, and part of 1Jn4:2 was probably interpolated, '1John' was written before the original gospel (possibly even pre-GMark). Furthermore, it seems the gospel was generated in order to substantiate the claims of 1Jn1:1-4:
"That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, concerning the Word of life-- the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare to you that eternal life which was with the Father and was manifested to us -- that which we have seen and heard we declare to you [but no historical specific shows up in the epistle!], that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ."

So what happened?
A Christian community in a city of Asia minor (likely Ephesus), who uncomfortably coexisted in different groups (toning down their Christian beliefs wherever there were differences!), split in different factions, hostile to each others:
1Jn2:18b-22 "... even now many antichrists have come, by which we know that it is the last hour. They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us; but they went out that they might be made manifest, that none of them were of us. But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you know all things. I have not written to you because you do not know the truth, but because you know it, and that no lie is of the truth. Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son."
The '1John' group, very much into Pauline/Apollosine Christology, was probably fighting off Jewish Christians and Ebionites.
Then, later, GMark came into the community: it was not what "John" had in mind in order to support his claims from 1Jn1:1-4 (previously quoted)! So the writing of the gospel, inciting, among other things, to accept Jesus as the pre-existent Son/Word of God and equal to the Father (& in complete harmony with him, of course!). No acceptance, no salvation! Other Christians (& the Ebionites) were invited to be "born again" (or else!):
Jn3:3-4 "... Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. ..."How can a man be born when he is old ...""
Jn3:17-18 "For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God."

But could the author of the massive changes and additions (done for Version L) be the same as the one of the original version?
I cannot answer that, but we may be looking at three different authors (accounting also for the one of the "epilogue")!

Where does that leave the "beloved disciple"?
This ex-priest may have provided (casually) some of the geographical, architectural & sociological details typical of GJohn (3:23,5:2-3,7,11:18,18:1,19:13?,17?). Also, he may have claimed (or was rumored) to be the host of the "Last Supper" (13:23-24), and years later, to witness the crucifixion (19:25-27,35?). Furthermore, as the companion of Peter, "John" placed him (but without clear identification) in the high priest courtyard (18:15-16) and at the empty tomb (20:2-8).
Why did "John" invoke the "beloved disciple"?
Because presbyter John, as an (alleged) eyewitness, was a dear Christian figure then in Asia minor. His death (as the believed last disciple alive) created a shock in the community (and likely outside also):
Jn21:22-23 "Jesus said to him, "If I will that he remain till I come [second coming], ..." Then this saying went out among the brethren that this disciple would not die."
After his death, it was suggested the "beloved disciple" wrote (most of) the gospel:
Jn21:24 "This is the disciple who testifies of these things, and wrote these things; and we know that his testimony is true."

The authorship of GJohn and the Johannine epistles was assigned to John the fisherman not sooner than the third century. Earlier, around 180, in Irenaeus' surviving works, the author of the 4th gospel and 'Revelation' is often called "John, the disciple of the Lord". However, this John is never specified as a son_of_Zebedee/fisherman/Galilean/one_of_the_twelve or even "apostle" (but Peter, Matthew & the twelve are). That will be done later by Origen (203-250C.E.):
Commentary on John, I, 14: "John, son of Zebedee, says in his Apocalypse: "And I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the Eternal Gospel, to preach it to those who dwell upon the earth ... [Rev14:6-7]"
Commentary on John, V, 3: "What are we to say of him who leaned on Jesus' breast, namely, John, who left one Gospel, though confessing that he could make so many that the world would not contain them? But he wrote also the Apocalypse, being commanded to be silent and not to write the voices of the seven thunders. But he also left an epistle of very few lines. Suppose also a second and a third, since not all pronounce these to be genuine; but the two together do not amount to a hundred lines."]

20:9 {For as yet they did not know the Scripture, that He must rise again from the dead.}
20:10 Then the disciples went away again to their own homes.

[The disciples' dispersion:
A) 'palin' ("again") can be translated as well by "back" as in the RSV.
B) This is confirmed by:
"Indeed the hour is coming, yes, has now come, that you will be scattered, each to his own, and will leave Me alone" (Jn16:32)
written later (Version Mx), but before GLuke was known. This scattering and disowning is "prophesied" in Mk14:27-28 but NOT in GLuke]
< L8 20:11-23>

<A2 20:24-31>
<D1 21:1-25>


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