To Paul's third journey
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1bCORINTHIANS: Written by Paul later in 53C.E. from Ephesus.
Paul obviously feels he is in part rejected and his credentials as an apostle are doubted. Paul (& Barnabas) were not paid and he complains about it. Then, because of that, Paul has to answer why he was "cheap".
Paul defends his credentials:
Paul is under criticism again.
9:1 ... Am I not an apostle? Am I not free?
Have I not seen Jesus
Christ our Lord?
[mention of alleged revelations: Paul had not been an eyewitness of Jesus]
` Are you not my work in the Lord? 2 If I am not an apostle to others, yet doubtless I am to you. For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord. 3 My defense to those who examine me is this: 4 Do we have no right to eat and drink? 5 Do we have no right to take along a believing wife, as do also the other apostles, the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?
Remark: the brothers of Jesus were also travelling (with their wives!), just like the apostles (except Paul & Barnabas) and Peter (Cephas). Also, according to what follows, they were paid and did not have to work. That would prove they were held in high consideration among the Christian communities they visited and, most likely, were a source of information about their brother.
Paul is complaining bitterly that he (and Barnabas) was not paid by the Corinthians:
6 Or is it only Barnabas and I who have no right to refrain from working? 7 Who ever goes to war at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat of its fruit? Or who tends a flock and does not drink of the milk of the flock? 8 Do I say these things as a mere man? Or does not the law say the same also? 9 For it is written in the law of Moses, "You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it oxen God is concerned about? 10 Or does He say it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written, that he who plows should plow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should be partaker of his hope. 11 If we have sown spiritual things for you, is it a great thing if we reap your material things? 12 If others are partakers of this right over you, are we not even more? Nevertheless we have not used this right, but endure all things lest we hinder the gospel of Christ. 13 Do you not know that those who minister the holy things eat of the things of the temple, and those who serve at the altar partake of the offerings of the altar? 14 Even so the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should live from the gospel. 15 But I have used none of these things, nor have I written these things that it should be done so to me; for it would be better for me to die than that anyone should make my boasting void.
Paul explains his ministry and why he is
preaching the gospel:
Paul stresses his humility (again!) and mentions that he preached his gospel to both Jews & Gentiles (but from a different perspective).
16 For if I preach the gospel, I have nothing to boast of, for necessity is laid upon me; yes, woe is me if I do not preach the gospel! 17 For if I do this willingly, I have a reward; but if against my will, I have been entrusted with a stewardship. 18 What is my reward then? That when I preach the gospel, I may present the gospel of Christ without charge, that I may not abuse my authority in the gospel. 19 For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a servant to all, that I might win the more; 20 and to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews; to those who are under the law, as under the law, that I might win those who are under the law; 21 to those who are without law, as without law (not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that I might win those who are without law; 22 to the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all men, that I might by all means save some. 23 Now this I do for the gospel's sake, that I may be partaker of it with you.
The conclusion: Paul's race:
Paul wants to show he is disciplined and his preaching true: if it is false and himself a liar, he would lose the prize (heaven).
24 Do you not know that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize? Run in such a way that you may obtain it. 25 And everyone who competes for the prize is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a perishable crown, but we for an imperishable crown. 26 Therefore I run thus: not with uncertainty. Thus I fight: not as one who beats the air. 27 But I discipline my body and bring it into subjection, lest, when I have preached to others, I myself should become disqualified. ...