19 Feb 2013 
#53 Arguments in favor of proving Marcion's gospel (of the Lord) was written after Luke's gospel

To Blog Entry Page / To Tags Complete List / To My Website
Emphasis mine
In order to use the Tags function, please copy selected {tag_name} (c/w brackets), then go to the Blog Entry Page and paste it in the FIND box of your browser.

1) Introduction:
Marcion, active in the Christian world from around 130, had a gospel called 'gospel of the Lord'. For orthodox fathers of the Church, like Irenaeus of Lyons, Tertullian and Epiphanius of Salamis, this gospel was the product of a mutilation of gLuke.

Irenaeus, Against Heresies:
- I, XXVII, 2 "he [Marcion] mutilates the Gospel which is according to Luke, removing all that is written respecting the generation of the Lord, and setting aside a great deal of the teaching of the Lord, in which the Lord is recorded as most dearly confessing that the Maker of this universe is His Father."
- III, XI, 7 "But Marcion, mutilating that according to Luke, is proved to be a blasphemer of the only existing God, from those [passages] which he still retains."
- III, XIV, 4 "And if indeed Marcion's followers reject these, they will then possess no Gospel; for, curtailing that according to Luke, as I have said already, they boast in having the Gospel."

Tertullian, Against Marcion:
- IV, II "Now, of the authors whom we possess, Marcion seems to have singled out Luke for his mutilating process."
- IV, IV "For if the Gospel, said to be Luke's which is current amongst us (we shall see whether it be also current with Marcion), is the very one which, as Marcion argues in his Antitheses, was interpolated by the defenders of Judaism, ..."
- IV, V "Luke's Gospel also has come down to us in like integrity until the sacrilegious treatment of Marcion. In short, when Marcion laid hands on it, it then became diverse and hostile to the Gospels of the apostles. I will therefore advise his followers, that they either change these Gospels, however late to do so, into a conformity with their own, whereby they may seem to be in agreement with the apostolic writings (for they are daily retouching their work, as daily they are convicted by us); ..."

Epiphanius, Panarion (III, 42):
- I, III "But I shall come to his writings, or rather, to his tamperings. This man has only Luke as a Gospel, mutilated at the beginning because of the Savior's conception and his incarnation. But this person who harmed himself than the Gospel did not cut just the beginning off. He also cut off many words of the truth both at the end and in the middle, and he has added other things besides, beyond what had been written. And he uses only this (Gospel) canon, the Gospel according to Luke"
- I, III "For the (Marcionite) canon of Luke is revelatory of mutilated as it is, without beginning, middle or end, it looks like a cloak full of moth holes."
- I, III "This is Marcion's corrupt compilation, containing a version and form of the Gospel according to Luke, ..."
- I, III "I have made this laborious, searching compilation from the scripture he has chosen, Paul and the Gospel according to Luke ...."
- I, III "I am also going to append the treatise which I had written against him before, at your instance, brothers, hastening to compose this one. Some years ago, to find what falsehood this Marcion had invented and what his silly teaching was, I took up his very books which he had < mutilated >, his so-called Gospel and Apostolic Canon ... And in this way I went through all of the passages in which it is apparent that, foolishly, he still retains against himself these leftover sayings of the Savior and the apostle. For some of them had been falsely entered by himself, in an altered form and unlike the authentic copy of the Gospel [of Luke] and the meaning of the apostolic canon. But others were exactly like both the Gospel [of Luke] and Apostle, unchanged by Marcion but capable of completely demolishing him."

This shorter gospel (gMarcion) certainly allows for (but not support) the main Marcionites' beliefs: Jesus as Son of the ultimate God (not the lesser (imperfect) creator god of the Jews) and Jesus, when on earth, having an "instant" docetist body. Furthermore, Marcion' gospel considerably cut down any Judaism.

Of course, Marcion would not say he wrote the gospel, more so because he kept Jesus predicting the fall of Jerusalem (in 70). Also, he was likely to contend his gospel was redacted earlier than the others.

Unfortunately, we do not have a copy of Marcion's gospel, but because of Tertullian's 'Against Marcion' and Epiphanius' 'Panarion', reconstructions had been attempted but cannot be definitive, by reason of not having enough accurate information.

However, one truncation is very obvious, confirming the observation of Irenaeus, Tertullian and Epiphanius:

1) Lk 5:33 "And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?"
Tertullian's 'Against Marcion', IV, 11: "Whence, too, does John come upon the scene? Christ, suddenly; and just as suddenly, John! After this fashion occur all things in Marcion's system."

"Luke" thoroughly introduced John, son of Zechariah, in chapter 1, and in chapter 3, described him as a very popular baptizer & preacher (therefore with his own disciples). So the mention of disciples of John in 5:33 is of no surprise.
However, as noticed by Tertullian, the sudden appearance of disciples of a "John" in gMarcion 5:33, with no further identification (except later at 7:20, which is very odd, because it should be made when a person is mentioned for the first time), is a sure clue Marcion was working from a gospel (gLuke) and truncated it (eliminating all occurrences of John the Baptist before Lk 5:33). And all other canonical gospels described John at their beginning, well before Jesus starts his public life.

This is confirmed by Epiphanius in his Panarion III, 42:
"At the very beginning he excised everything Luke had originally composed - his "inasmuch as many have taken in hand," and so forth, and the material about Elizabeth and the angel's announcement to Mary the Virgin; about John and Zacharias and the birth at Bethlehem; the genealogy and the story of the baptism."

Besides, Marcion's gospel has a rather abrupt beginning:
"In the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, in the times of Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea,
Jesus came down
[out of heaven is not mentioned] to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and was teaching them on the Sabbath days [ not attested] in the synagogue.
But they were astonished at his doctrine ..."

(as drawn from Luke's gospel:
Lk 3:1a "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea ..."
Lk 4:31 "And he came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and was teaching them on the Sabbath days.
Lk 4:32a And they were astonished at his doctrine ...")

Furthermore, in Luke's gospel we have:
21:31 "So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near.
21:32 Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away till all has taken place.
21:33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away."

However in Marcion's gospel, we read (according to Tertullian's Against Marcion, IV, XXXIX):
31 Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that God's Kingdom is near.
32 Most certainly I tell you, heaven and earth will not pass away until except all things be accomplished.
33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will remain forever."

Here, "this generation" has been substituted by "heaven and earth", eliminating the time marker.

Note: Irenaeus (before Tertullian's writings), in a general statement, was the first to confirm gMarcion did not have "this generation":
Against Heresies, I, XXVII, 2: "Besides this, he mutilates the Gospel which is according to Luke, removing all that is written respecting the generation of the Lord"

What to draw from that?
Luke's gospel was written around 85 CE (see http://historical-jesus.info/62.html). At that time, it still could be thought Jesus' generation was not over yet. But when gMarcion was written (around 130 CE), Jesus' generation had pass away.
Marcion had to remove "this generation". If not, his gospel would make Jesus a liar and a false prophet.
That shows Marcion's gospel was written decades after gLuke, well into the 2nd century. Then, if so, it was Marcion who truncated gLuke and not the other way around ("Luke" adding up on gMarcion (or some proto-Luke that Marcion copied)).

With gLuke redacted before "the gospel of the Lord" (and from gMark & "Q" & Lukan material), it becomes obvious Marcion got his gospel by truncating gLuke.
See this webpage about the dating of the gospels, through the external and internal evidence.

Cordially, Bernard

Tags: {dating} {Luke's gospel} {Marcion}
Your comment: please copy "post #53" (to be pasted in your reply) and then click on "New Comment".